To Bhaga Savitri, the Enjoyer
Rig Veda V.82
1. Of Savitri divine we embrace that enjoying, that which is
the best, rightly disposes all, reaches the goal, even Bhaga's, we hold by the thought.
2. For of him no pleasure in things can they diminish, for too self-victorious is it, nor the self-empire of this Enjoyer.
3. 'Tis he that sends forth the delights on the giver, the god who is the bringer forth of things; that varied richness of his
enjoyment we seek.
4. Today, O divine Producer, send forth on us fruitful felicity,
dismiss what belongs to the evil dream.
Page – 299
5. All evils, O divine Producer, dismiss; what is good, that send forth on us.
6. Blameless for infinite being in the outpouring of the divine Producer, we hold by the thought all things of delight.
7. The universal godhead and master of being we accept into ourselves by perfect words today, the Producer whose production is of the truth —
8. He who goes in front of both this day and night never
faltering, placing rightly his thought, the divine Producer —
9. He who by the rhythm makes heard of the knowledge all
births and produces them, the divine Producer.
Four great deities constantly appear in the Veda as closely allied in their nature and in their action, Varuna, Mitra, Bhaga,
Aryaman. Varuna and Mitra are continually coupled together in the thoughts of the Rishis; sometimes a trio appears together,
Varuna, Mitra and Bhaga or Varuna, Mitra and Aryaman. Separate sūktas addressed to any of these godheads are comparatively
Page – 300
rare, although there are some important hymns of which Varuna is the deity. But the Riks in which their names occur, whether in
hymns to other gods or in invocations to the All-gods, the Viśve
Devāh, are by no means inconsiderable in number.
These four deities are, according to Sayana, solar powers, Varuna negatively as lord of the night, Mitra positively as lord
of the day, Bhaga and Aryaman as names of the Sun. We need not attach much importance to these particular identifications,
but it is certain that a solar character attaches to all the four. In them that peculiar feature of the Vedic gods, their essential
oneness even in the play of their different personalities and functions, comes prominently to light. Not only are the four closely
associated among themselves, but they seem to partake of each other's nature and attributes, and all are evidently emanations
of Surya Savitri, the divine being in his creative and illuminative solar form.
Surya Savitri is the Creator. According to the Truth of things, in the terms of the Ritam, the worlds are brought forth from
the divine consciousness, from Aditi, goddess of infinite being, mother of the gods, the indivisible consciousness, the Light that
cannot be impaired imaged by the mystic Cow that cannot be slain. In that creation, Varuna and Mitra, Aryaman and Bhaga
are four effective Puissances. Varuna represents the principle of pure and wide being, Sat in Sachchidananda; Aryaman represents the light of the divine consciousness working as Force; Mitra representing light and knowledge, using the principle of
Ananda for creation, is Love maintaining the law of harmony; Bhaga represents Ananda as the creative enjoyment; he takes the
delight of the creation, takes the delight of all that is created. It is the Maya, the formative wisdom of Varuna, of Mitra that
disposes multitudinously the light of Aditi brought by the Dawn to manifest the worlds.
In their psychological function these four gods represent the same principles working in the human mind, in the human
temperament. They build up in man the different planes of his being and mould them ultimately into the terms and the forms
of the divine Truth. Especially Mitra and Varuna are continually
Page – 301
described as holding firm the law of their action, increasing the Truth, touching the Truth and by the Truth enjoying its vastness
of divine will or its great and uncontracted sacrificial action. Varuna represents largeness, right and purity; everything that
deviates from the right, from the purity recoils from his being and strikes the offender as the punishment of sin. So long as
man does not attain to the largeness of Varuna's Truth, he is bound to the posts of the world-sacrifice by the triple bonds
of mind, life and body as a victim and is not free as a possessor and enjoyer. Therefore we have frequently the prayer to
be delivered from the noose of Varuna, from the wrath of his offended purity. Mitra is on the other hand the most beloved of
the gods; he binds all together by the fixities of his harmony, by the successive lustrous seats of Love fulfilling itself in the order
of things, mitrasya dhāmabhih. His name, Mitra, which means
also friend, is constantly used with a play upon the double sense;
it is as Mitra, because Mitra dwells in all, that the other gods become the friends of man. Aryaman appears in the Veda with
but little distinctness of personality, for the references to him are brief. The functions of Bhaga are outlined more clearly and are
the same in the cosmos and in man.
In this hymn of Shyavashwa to Savitri we see both the functions of Bhaga and his oneness with Surya Savitri; for it is to the creative Lord of Truth that the hymn is addressed, to Surya,
but to Surya specifically in his form as Bhaga, as the Lord of Enjoyment. The word
bhaga means enjoyment or the enjoyer
and that this sense is the one held especially appropriate to the divine name, Bhaga, is emphasised by the use of
bhāga, saubhagam in the verses of the hymn. Savitri, we have
seen, means Creator, but especially in the sense of producing, emitting from the unmanifest and bringing out into the manifest. Throughout the hymn there is a constant dwelling upon this root-sense of the word which it is impossible to render
adequately in a translation. In the very first verse there is a covert play of the kind; for
bhojanam means both enjoyment
and food and it is intended to be conveyed that the "enjoyment of Savitri" is Soma, from the same root
su, to produce, press
Page – 302
out, distil, Soma, the food of divine beings, the supreme distilling, highest production of the great Producer. What the Rishi
seeks is the enjoyment in all created things of the immortal and immortalising Ananda.
It is this Ananda which is that enjoyment of the divine Producer, of Surya Savitri, the supreme result of the Truth; for Truth
is followed as the path to the divine beatitude. This Ananda is the highest, the best enjoyment. It disposes all aright; for once
the Ananda, the divine delight in all things is attained, it sets right all the distortions, all the evil of the world. It carries man
through to the goal. If by the truth and right of things we arrive at the Ananda, by the Ananda also we can arrive at the right
and truth of things. It is to the divine Creator in the name and form of Bhaga that this human capacity for the divine and
right enjoyment of all things belongs. When he is embraced by the human mind and heart and vital forces and physical being,
when this divine form is received into himself by man, then the Ananda of the world manifests itself.
Nothing can limit, nothing can diminish, neither god nor demon, friend nor enemy, event nor sensation, whatever pleasure
this divine Enjoyer takes in things, in whatever vessel or object of his enjoyment. For nothing can diminish or hedge in or hurt
his luminous self-empire, svarājyam, his perfect possession of
himself in infinite being, infinite delight and the vastnesses of the order of the Truth.
Therefore it is he that brings the seven delights, sapta ratnā,
to the giver of the sacrifice. He looses them forth on us; for they are all there in the world as in the divine being, in ourselves also,
and have only to be loosed forth on our outer consciousness. The rich and varied amplitude of this sevenfold delight, perfect on
all the planes of our being, is the bhāga, enjoyment or portion
of Bhaga Savitri in the completed sacrifice, and it is that varied wealth which the Rishi seeks for himself and his fellows in the
sacrifice by the acceptance of the divine Enjoyer.
Shyavashwa then calls on Bhaga Savitri to vouchsafe to him
even today a felicity not barren, but full of the fruits of activity, rich in the offspring of the soul,
prajāvat saubhagam. Ananda is
Page – 303
creative, it is jana, the delight that gives birth to life and world; only let the things loosed forth on us be of the creation conceived
in the terms of the truth and let all that belongs to the falsehood, to the evil dream created by the ignorance of the divine Truth,
duhsvapnyam, be dismissed, dispelled away from our conscious being.
In the next verse he makes clearer the sense of
What he desires to be dispelled is all evil, visvani duritani.
Suvitam and duritam in the Veda mean literally right going and wrong going.
Suvitam is truth of thought and action, duritam
error or stumbling, sin and perversion. Suvitam is happy going, felicity, the path of Ananda;
duritam is calamity, suffering, all
ill result of error and ill doing. All that is evil, viśvāni duritani,
belongs to the evil dream that has to be turned away from us. Bhaga
sends to us instead all that is good, —bhadram, good in the sense of felicity, the auspicious things of the divine enjoying,
the happiness of the right activity, the right creation.
For, in the creation of Bhaga Savitri, in his perfect and fault
less sacrifice, —there is a double sense in the word sava, "loosing forth", used of the creation, and the sacrifice, the libation of the
Soma, —men stand absolved from sin and blame by the Ananda, anāgaso, blameless in the sight of Aditi, fit for the undivided and infinite consciousness of the liberated soul. The Ananda owing to
that freedom is capable of being in them universal. They are able
to hold by their thought all things of the delight, viśvā
for in the dhī, the understanding that holds and arranges, there is right arrangement of the world, perception of right relation,
right purpose, right use, right fulfilment, the divine and blissful intention in all things.
It is the universal Divine, the master of the Sat, from whom all things are created in the terms of the truth,
satyam, that the
sacrificers today by means of the sacred mantras seek to accept into themselves under the name of Bhaga Savitri. It is the creator
whose creation is the Truth, whose sacrifice is the outpouring of the truth through the outpouring of his own Ananda, his divine
and unerring joy of being, into the human soul. He as Surya Savitri, master of the Truth, goes in front of both this Night
Page – 304
and this Dawn, of the manifest consciousness and the unmanifest, the waking being and the subconscient and superconscient
whose interaction creates all our experiences; and in his motion he neglects nothing, is never unheeding, never falters. He goes
in front of both bringing out of the night of the subconscient the divine Light, turning into the beams of that Light the uncertain
or distorted reflections of the conscient, and always the thought is rightly placed. The source of all error is misapplication, wrong
placing of truth, wrong arrangement, wrong relation, wrong positing in time and place, object and order. But in the Master
of Truth there is no such error, no such stumbling, no such wrong placing.
Surya Savitri, who is Bhaga, stands between the Infinite and the created worlds within us and without. All things that
have to be born in the creative consciousness he receives into the Vijnana; there he puts it into its right place in the divine
rhythm by the knowledge that listens and receives the Word as it descends and so he looses it forth into the movement of things,
´ āśrāvayati ślokena pra ca
suvāti. When in us each creation of
the active Ananda, the prajāvat saubhagam, comes thus out of
the unmanifest, received and heard rightly of the knowledge in the faultless rhythm of things, then is our creation that of
Bhaga Savitri, and all the births of that creation, our children, our offspring, prajā, apatyam, are things of the delight,
vāmāni. This is the accomplishment of Bhaga in man, his full
portion of the world-sacrifice.
Page – 305